The natural condition is one of insurmountable obstacles on the road to imminent disaster, but strangely enough, it all turns out well. How it does, is a mystery.

— Henslowe
(Paraphrased from Shakespeare in Love)

Chapter 2


Paul E. Nunn

"Sometimes, there was a limited animation budget, so my challenge was how to tell this elaborate story in a few…"

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In 1915, model Audrey Munsen was chosen to pose as the figure to appear on the memorial coin for the …"

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Human beings have been performing theatrics since the dawn of man. Whether the reason was to educate, as a ritual, to entertain or talk about the one that got away; its part of our personalities to convey a subject in a form of a story. It's a better vehicle for people to understand. It was primitive man who used performing as rituals that they believed could bring the sun out or make it rain. Prior to the written language, theatrics educated the young through these rituals and initiations, some still being used today among Australian and African tribes, but also has found a way into our educational institutions.

Whether it's a story performed about a victory, about a hero or for entertainment purposes, this usually required a "stage" and an audience. The original stage was simply a circle surrounded by an spectators, with the earliest official "theatre" being accredited not to Greece, but the Egyptians, who developed a calendar in 4241 B.C. (the earliest date known in history). Thanks to their preoccupation in preparing for an afterlife, there are many records of ritualistic performances, but only one very popular myth that could be construed as real "theatre." This was a story about the death and resurrection of the god Osiris, said to have been the son of Geb (the earth) and Nut (the sky). Osiris succeeded his father as ruler and was married to his sister, Isis. Seth (his brother) didn't like the idea that he's had all the power so he killed him and took over. He buried the parts of his dismembered body all over Egypt, but Isis found them and with the aid of Anubis, the jackal-god, revived Osiris. Unfortunately, Oriris wasn't allowed back on Earth, so he was condemned to the underworld where he becomes the official judge of souls. Isis bore a son, Horus, who fought with Seth and won back his father's kingdom.

The Greeks invented the "tragedy'" in 534 B.C., when a little known performer named Thespis (the thespian) won an award in recognition of his tragic story. The early recorded plays in Greece were influenced by the Egyptians, and centered on the god Dionysus, the son of Zeus, who incidentally was also killed, dismembered and resurrected.

The Theatre of Dionysus was the first stadium like theatre built on a hillside and seated about 15,000 persons. This theatron, which is where the word theatre comes from, means "seeing place," so the stage was now set and the frame began to emerge.


The origin of "seeing place," which is the ancient definition of theatre, is with the first constructed Theatre of Dionysus, in Athens, Greece.

© 1997 Sallie Goetsch and Stefan Didak. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

It was Aristotle the philosopher who wrote the first treatises on theatre, and through his analysis proposed six parts to a drama— plot, character, thought, diction (projection), music and spectacle. Beyond that, he discussed the unity of action, the probability in drama, requirements of plot, characteristics of the hero and other topics still in action today.

Dr. Linda Seger (pronounced Say-ger), who calls herself a "script doctor," analyzes and fixes screenplays and scripts, but is best known for her first book, Making a Good Script Great (1984). She believes that all art has an organic shape that struggles to solidify and that in dramatic storytelling, the story demands movement, so the shape needs strength to support the theme, characters and the progress of the story. "One is not imposing a shape; one is looking at the story and simply trying to pull out the shape that the story is trying to take."

Although there are various formulas to the structure of a script, not all scripts are the same, so she focuses on beginnings, middles and ends. "What is the focus of the beginning and what are the focus of the middle and the focus of the end."

There are eight sections within the three-act structure, including the setup, the development of act one, a first turning point, act two, a midpoint (if applicable), a second turning point, a climax and a resolution.

There are eight sections within the three-act structure, including the setup, the development of act one, a first turning point, act two, a midpoint (if applicable), a second turning point, a climax and a resolution.

Dr. Seger has recommended taking many classes with varying approaches to writing and structure. "Eventually every creative person devises their own system. You listen to me, you listen to them, and then you just do what you want."

The theatre itself as a gathering place evolved through the Italian Renaissance and its bout with William Shakespeare during the Elizabethan era. The scenic practices grew and grew, with many larger than life sets and theatres. Lighting was introduced, using candles and reflectors during the 1700s, with the old lamp replacing candles in the late 1700s. However, it was the entire theatre that was lit as special lighting effects didn't transpire until the advent of electricity and the electric bulb.

The theatre not only provided a "stage" to present stories, but also created the "frame" (either circular or rectangular), for the visual enhancements from which all future visual storytelling art forms would relate. Yes, there are still stories told at the kitchen table or while on Grandpa's lap, but storytelling became a profession, and dramatic imagery was now added to illuminate.

During the 19th Century, acting evolved into illusionism; creating an interpretation of "real-life." Although there were sporadic attempts at theatrical realism, prior to the middle of the 19th Century, it was limited to picturesque surroundings or visualizing reenactments of historic events. Realistic melodrama was born, first becoming a movement of sorts around 1853 and with it — a new respect for a Director; someone who could coordinate the path of the story, now that it extended beyond a single or handful of actors, with effects, costumes and other elements. The first real directors, who insisted on complete control over production, spawned out of France at this time and became the catalysts for more realism in stage plays. And so, the sordid elements of life were watched in horror on the stage; death throes, adultery, murder, etc. This was a key turning point for drama, as typically most actors were confined to a semi-circle in the front of the stage, and upon completing their lines, moved upstage (to the back) to wait until the story called upon their role to join the action. Most of the acting required more storytelling to the audience, rather than "acting" a part or becoming a character within a setting. Realistic melodrama introduced real rooms and characters that spoke to each other on stage, rather than the audience.

At the turn of the 20th century, the theatre had become much of what we recognize today. Panoramas were added to scenes, painted on large drapes hanging from spools on the ceiling, a method that was later brought to film.

For a decade, Paul Nunn has created characters and animation for such companies as Mattel Media and Disney Interactive. He's animated Mickey Mouse, Dumbo and numerous other characters, including his own at BOXTOPTV.COM, where as President, he's creating the next generation cartoon theatre.

"My first animated character experience in interactive games was Pin Ball Harry," said Nunn. "The animation there involved three pixels and three facial expressions; scared, more scared and really scared. It's very different now."

As a creator, Nunn struggles with the age old question: what's more important, the character or the story? "If you take a character like Superman or Shrek, and if you put that same true character into some new setting and you expound on that character's personality; that's the story."

Nunn believes from experience in episodic features, that the stronger the character, the more interesting or the more capable the story. "I'm sure it goes the other way, but it seems like from an animator's standpoint, I'm character driven anyway; that's probably where all my storytelling comes from."

Biker Heroes
Now that the stage is set, you'll need some characters to tell as story. Spending the time to establish well-developed characters, whose depth will then provide the vehicle for writing their own stories.

A well-developed character does provide background that tells a story in itself. By building a character—it's personality, likes dislikes, voices — all those things are elements of a story. Buzz Lightyear and Woody from Toy Story are well developed characters that tell a story themselves. It's usually a subliminal message, fixated within the imagery of the character, from the clothes to the colors they wear. Most people can tell what Toy Story is about, and may certainly start quoting lines and incidents that Woody and Buzz got into, not realizing that there's a story unfolding before their eyes.

Jeff Smith

"There's something about storytelling that requires a storyteller."

— Jeff Smith

"That's why I enjoy episodic features, like our animation series and the live action serial— P3," said Nunn.

BOXTOPTV.COM offers several episodic animated features and a black-and-white live action series called P3 (Population: 3 million), reminiscent of the old serials of the 1930s and 1940s. "This is our chance at creating characters and a lengthy series that gives you unlimited time to truly develop the life of all the characters."

Nunn discovered during his tenure at Disney Interactive, that most of the people working there weren't creating a CD-ROM game; they making movies — stories. The CD-ROM game was an excuse to tell a story. That's' the beauty of the new Internet technology like Flash, it provides a stage for anyone to tell an animated story that they could only dream about a decade ago."

Many of the pioneers of film, comics, television and animation brought their unique flair and experience between and from other industries and experimented to transcend the creation of an art form.

In the following chapter, we explore comics and sequential art, which exploded as something revolutionary – visual storytelling with unlimited special effects from the mind of the artist. True, it's a static form of visual storytelling; but that's not a bad thing; just different. There is one core fundamental similarity that all visual storytelling media have and that is the mise-en-scene or scenery; the arrangement of figures, properties, backdrops, shapes, space and light within the "frame" itself.

How the figures move in and out of the frame is as important as what goes inside the frame. By always keeping the framed action moving from left to right (in theatre, film or comics) - it makes the eye move faster across the scene and therefore intensifies the action. To force the eye to slow down or stop, invert and move from right to left. This is also a great way to introduce the antagonist of a story or scene. Keep all action moving from left to right, but have the antagonist enter the scene from stage right. This can cause the entrance to be even more dramatic than it might have been otherwise. Bringing in a character from stage right after a long sequence of left to right motion can be very effective way to add emphasis to the character.

In the Epoch Entertainment film, Bite Me, Fanboy!, contributor Mat Nastos elaborates on the stage entrances. In the first comic shop scene, Nick and Jared begin and end on the left side of the screen, and Ray begins and ends on the right (see Figure 2.9 & 2.10). Almost consistently throughout the movie, Jared and Nick are on the left side of the screen, and every character that represents a problem or conflict (or goes against the forward momentum of the story) appear from the right side – the Pokemon Kids, Rachel, Ray, Price Guide Guy, etc.

Girl GL

In the film Bite Me, Fanboy!, the characters Nick (in the Green Lantern costume) and Jared (on the left) begin and end on the left side of the screen, while Ray begins and ends on the right. Almost consistently throughout the movie, Jared and Nick are on the left side of the screen, and every character that represents a problem or conflict (or goes against the forward momentum of the story) appears from the right side. Mat Nastos, writer ad director of the film, believes that this provides for a more effective use of the stage.

© 2001 Epoch Entertainment, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

"The feeding frenzy was a tough choice." This was where the comic shop was invaded by dozens of hungry fans, which ideally, should be intense action, flowing from left-to-right, but in this case it was flipped, presenting it as something that moves against the natural order of things. It's an antagonistic entity. The characters of Jared and Tony were looking off to the right to reinforce the feeding frenzy's position in the alternate shots.

A second example is the Jared-Rachel (Nick's girlfriend) confrontation. Jared starts out on the right to show his opposition to Rachel, but quickly moves to the left as they come together to solve the Nick problem.

While theatre thrived for more realism, and film was scaring audiences out of movie theatres with the image of on oncoming train, comics introduced surrealistic worlds of talking animals, adventure stories and strange alien planets.

Although there have been many advancements in visual storytelling through technology over the past century, the need to frame the scene into the context of "page" or "screen" is still a necessity in the foretelling of a story with pictures. The future may hold a catalyst for breaking down the barrier of "mock" 3-D, but as of today, the most we can hope for "outside this box" is an adventurous storytelling ride at an amusement park. The theatre beyond the traditional rectangular stage in the form of an "attraction," some that moves the audience through a changing staged landscape rather than change the stage itself. Landmark Entertainment, designers of attractions such as Terminator 3-D and Spiderman 3-D for Universal Studios, continues to break new ground in merging media with reality, in the form of electric theatre or "motion theatre" (under the genus of "interactive" in the taxonomy chart). There are even restaurants that have themes, such as riding a spaceship to the planet Mars for lunch – flight attendants and everything.

Gary Goddard, the President of Landmark Entertainment Group, keeps his eyes open for the big idea. "The big idea is the one that no one else has come up with—the one that when everyone looks at me like I've lost my mind- I know I'm on the right track."

Goddard points out that with a live-action attraction; there is only a matter of minutes to capture the audience's attention, unlike other visual storytelling media, which can be up to a few hours to continue to draw them into the story. Few attractions have achieved the kind of total immersion as the T2/3D and new Star Trek Experience (at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas), but technology is bringing that experience closer. "One of the reasons for these two successes is that there's an "instantaneous connection" to our story, because the public knows these myths and characters, or knows enough about them to feel comfortable within our fantastic environments."

The idea of immersion is attractive. In any media, if there's something which encourages the reader, the user or the player to participate, to have a sense of being a participant rather than merely watching; it empowers the person.

Movies, being a very passive experience, can draw the viewer into a sense of immersion, but without a participatory role. Ultimately, the power is in a future generation of VR (virtual reality). It may be nothing more than a novelty now, but, considering the dramatic unforeseen changes in technology within the past decade alone, it may be a foreboding giant on the horizon of visual storytelling.

We can witness a future in film emerging today in Japan, an innovator of technological achievements, where they've created virtual characters as stars. These new icons have millions of fans and are called pop idols. They're just these young singer entertainer characters created from 3-D software, much like the characters in the Final Fantasy film.They have their own music CDs, merchandising, everything a real celebrity would have for their fans, only they're not real; they don't exist.

Paul E. Nunn

Paul E. Nunn

President BOXTOPTV.COM, Animator

"Sometimes, there was a limited animation budget, so my challenge was how to tell this elaborate story in a few drawings as possible. That exercise made me realize you don't need 800 frames to show a guy kicking somebody. You can get that same emotion across in a few frames, just as you can in just a few panels in comics. It broadened my thinking about not the animation, but the story. You know, first I started out as just an animator, now I realize it's the story. That's why I'm animating; that's the root of all the creativity."

When I'm good I'm very, very good, but when I'm bad, I'm better.

— Actress Mae West

Censorship & Visual Storytelling


In 1915, model Audrey Munsen was chosen to pose as the figure to appear on the memorial coin for the San Francisco's World Fair. The newspaper media, the most prevalent at the time, bequeath upon her the title of the girl with the ideal figure. She was shortly signed onto a movie deal with the American Film Company, where Clifford Howard was assigned with the task of writing a scenario where Ms. Munsen could expose her perfect figure to the public. The movie Purity was one of the most costly films they ever produced, and also one of the most profitable. While the critics trashed it, and it was banned in many cities, it was one of the early films that propagated censorship in film. In the 1921 film, Queen of Sheba, actress Betty Blythe complained that if she were to put on all her 28 costumes for the lead roll, she would still be cold (all of them were see through lace).

On April 19, 1922, Will Hayes, who was also the postmaster-general, made his first major policy decision on his new job as the appointed "Czar of the Movies."

The exploration of the beginnings of film in detailed in Chapter 4, but these early years proved to be an adjustment for filmmakers. The Hayes Formula, as a censorship code, was lax. Will Hayes was concerned that a prohibitive approach to film censorship would have the same devastating effect on the general populace as that of the prohibition of alcohol, which was made law in 1920. There was nudity, orgies and gratuitous violence that still slipped by the Hayes Formula and onto the motion picture screen, because it sold more tickets and made the filmmakers richer.

It didn't become obvious for another decade that Will Hayes had no authority over the content on the screen. This is when the more restrictive Production Code Administration was formed. The Production Code, much like the Comics Code, outlined restrictions on language and behavior. Specifically, sex and violence was controlled, two easy ingredients for mass media success. The Code strictly prohibited nudity, suggestive dances, and the ridicule of religion, the depiction of illegal drug use, and even childbirth. Dozens of "offensive" words and phrases were banned from the screen. Criminal activity was only to be presented as unattractive and not lead viewers to sympathize with the criminals. Murder scenes were to be avoided and brutality could not be shown in detail. There were also restrictions on the depiction of marriage and limitations on adultery and illicit sex. It was Will Hays that convinced the studios that accepting the Code, during the Great Depression, was the safest and cheapest answer to their public problems. If the movie industry policed itself, it could ward off the high probability of government intervention and costly re-edits. It wouldn't be until 1934 and the appointment of Joe Breen, a strict Catholic moralist, to the Production Code Administration, before the authority was officially set-up to review all movies and demand changes. There was a fine of $25,000 to any theater that ran a film without the PCA seal of approval.

It was the release of a few "bad girl" films from 1932-33 that depicted woman sleeping their way to the top, and indulging in sadomasochistic relationships that was the last straw; and Hollywood found itself under strict censorship. It wouldn't be until the 1960s, and the social changes brought on by that era, that the Hays Production Code began to decay and gave birth on November 1, 1968, to the new voluntary film rating system of the motion picture industry we know today; G, PG, R, X. The new PG-13 rating was added in the 1980s, again to reflect the changing society and continued media sophistication evolution of the general populace.

Interactive Games

The self-censorship policing agency for video games also took about a decade to prevail. In 1994, Sega CD released a new full motion video interactive game called Night Trap. Dubbed an interactive video, it starred the late Dana Plato (young star of the television series Different Strokes), as a young girl who was basically being chased by vampires and monsters. This was the first product that was used by the Senate committee as an example of why interactive games needed a rating system.

The News media repeatedly showed a clip of someone being attacked with a drill, which did nothing but sell more copies of the game, but what they didn't see was the scene thereafter; "Game Over."

Ron Martinez, in an article in Wired Magazine said, "It's not like the object of the game is to maneuver people into being drilled to death. Your job is to save them." He later states that, much like there is with motion pictures, there does indeed need to be a rating system. In a paper written in 1993, on the dangers of video games, Valdemar W. Setzer, a Professor of Computer Science, at the Institute of Mathematics and Statistics, University of São Paulo, Brazil and George E. Duckett, a PhD candidate from Deakin University, Australia stated, "Experience has proven that outright prohibition is not an effective deterrent. Banning of the games is not a reasonable or effective answer to the dilemma as it would only cause children to desire the forbidden fruit even more. Any initiative to overcome the perceived problems of the games must come from the individual consciousness of responsible adults. It is the responsibility of parents to monitor the access and purchase of the video games."

This all sounds good; however, he later recommends disposing of all the games and compares giving them away to knowingly giving someone the plague.

The Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) was established in 1994 to provide a rating system, much like the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) established for motion pictures.

Comic Books

Americans have always loved their comic book characters, but there was a time, when comic books were actually burned in the streets. In the spring of 1954, and there was a great deal of political motivation behind an attack on the art form, akin to the Salem Witch Hunts, but the outcome would scar the art form in America to this very day.

In August 1950, a survey was sent to various professionals in law enforcement, court officials and comic professionals. There were seven questions drawn up by psychiatric consultant Fredic Wertham for the Senate committee investigation.

This survey was ignored by McCarthyism running rampant, as 60% felt that comic books had very little effect on juvenile delinquency and 70% felt that prohibiting the distribution of comic books to children would have little effect on delinquency. However, that didn't stop the Witch-hunt from continuing. During the Senate hearings that began in 1954, Dr. Wertham concluded that the potential damage to child who read the comic book Superman would result in "the superman complex," which was the "fantasies of sadistic joy in seeing other people punished over and over again while you yourself remained immune; an important contributing factor in many cases of juvenile delinquency."

Wertham slammed the industry very hard, having compared comic book publishers to Hitler and taking specific dialogue out of context to use as a lethal weapon. This may all sound ridiculous today, but it was serious business for the industry at that time. It was a fork in the road for the industry.

Authors S.A. Lowery and M.L. DeFleur in their book, Milestones in Mass Communication Research: Media Effect, provide necessary benchmarks for truly evaluating negative media effects on audience behavior. This is accomplished by scientifically gathered research data and systematic inventory of content—without it the speculations are biased, unreliable and useless as was the prejudicial attack on the comic book form in 1954.

In order to save the Industry from extinction (the concept of a ban was presented), the self-policing Comics Magazine Association of America (CMAA) became legally recognized entity in September 1954, with a series of specific codes following thereafter. This turned comic books into the homogenized fantasy media that barely changed until it was revised (slightly) in 1971, and then again in 1989, which as the President and Publisher of NOW Comics, author Tony C. Caputo had been fortunate to have experienced, if not participated.

Several of the best known comic book publishers between 1954 and 1956 went out of business, including William Gaines' EC Comics, who later reinvented his company as MAD magazine. The effects of the comics' code have been disastrous beyond those initial victims. The decades of vanilla entertainment, akin to Saturday Morning cartoons have kept the media as a perceived children's entertainment product, so unlike film or even interactive games today, where there was a more sophisticated level of product to grow into; most people simply just "outgrew" comic books. They were expected to nurture left-brain dominance, expanding logical thought and subverting the visual and creative stimuli of the right-brain and comics.

The horror stories within the pages of EC Comics in those days in the 1950s may have been "too intense for younger or more sensitive viewers," but parents were still purchasing them for their kids. The likes of Fredic Wertham neglected to take in consideration that kids are not stupid. They are usually taught the difference between right and wrong, and what's real or not. EC Comics fostered a creative environment that produced some of the most outstanding comic books in American history and spawned some of the industry's greatest talents. EC Comics were also relatively mild in comparison to what's delivered free into our homes, today. So, what's so different between the children of today and those of the 1950s? Simple: Media sophistication. It's highly unlikely that even a five year old would fall for Orson Welles and the War of The Worlds.

This is how the Comic Code played its cards for nearly twenty years. The baby-boomer generation grew up burning and loathing comics as a devious, twisted media or "the dummy's literature," while the rest of the entertainment world evolved from Leave it to Beaver to The Sopranos. Legendary artist and visionary Neal Adams had attempted to enter the comic books industry in 1959 at the age of 18, but everyone tried to convince him otherwise. "It was a terrible, terrible time, and it was reflected in the educational field," Adams told Will Eisner, in Eisner's book, Shop Talk, by Dark Horse Comics. "When I told people that I wanted to get into comics, they told me it's dead; there's nobody, forget about it. Unfortunately, Adams found it to be true, until the early to mid-sixties, when Stan Lee, Jack Kirby, Steve Ditko, Wally Wood and others created the Marvel Universe that we know today and brought new life to a dying American art form.

Meanwhile, most of the children grew up and then out-of comic books and moved onto other forms of more sophisticated entertainment (as the television began to evolve), with the exception of those who loved the art form and couldn't part ways, but they became fewer and fewer as other media offered more sophistication and dynamics. True, today's comics, even having been approved through the strict guidelines of the revised code, are only vaguely more cultured (although highly more sophisticated). Something needs to give to win over a far more sophisticated audience of today, with many more visual entertainment options. The overall perception over two generations [in the United States] is that they are still created, marketed and sold to children. Anything other than the vanilla Saturday Morning mentality creates uproar and flashbacks to the day the comic book world stood still.

To fully understand the disastrous effects the initial 1954 and subsequent attacks on the comic book industry have had, picture how television would be, if they too were restricted to the same rules and guidelines as the official Comics Code Authority. Television shows such as The Sopranos, Will & Grace, The Practice, West Wing or NYPD Blue would not exist at all, due to their intensity, content and language and shows like Everyone Loves Raymond or The Cosby's would be as vanilla as Leave it to Beaver and the Dick Van Dyke Show.

In Japan, comics are called "Manga" (pronounced as Man-gah), which accounts for more than 40 percent of all books and magazine sales, and average of 15 titles per person. However, the superheroes found in American comic books are uniquely American. Japanese Manga includes stories about anything from romance to golf; it truly developed into a respected literary art form. Prior to the advent of the Comics Code, there were multitudes of comic genre's including romance, which was pioneered by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby and spawned 527 different romance titles by 1952.

America is learning that comics and animation aren't necessarily an exclusive children's medium. Movies such as The Lion King, Toy Story and Shrek are on the list of the worldwide 100 Top grossing films of all time, Bugs Bunny and Micjey Mouse are on our clothing (at any age) and comic strips such as Peanuts garnished international respectability.

Today, all visual storytelling entertainment art forms have their own self-policing agency, but none as harsh and laser focused as the Comics Code. Many of us weren't even born when the Comics Code was first created. As a member of the Board of Directors for the Comics Magazine Association of America, in 1989, author Tony C. Caputo recalled an issue that was presented to the Comics Code Authority, which involved the use of derogatory slang term for an African American within the context of a story about African American superheroes in the urban ghetto. The publisher felt the need to add this into the story to "offer realistic credibility to the characters."

All agreed that the art form needed to "grow up," but the board voted to negate such a request. The problem was not in the use of such a word in the context of the story (there is equal if not worse language used in other media), but in the public's perception of the comic book format as children's literature.

Although the Comics Code has been revised twice in its history, what the comic book industry (as a whole) really needs to expand beyond the confines of this stereotypical perception and the only way to do it is to move forward, like other visual storytelling art forms and establish a highly publicized, industry wide and supported rating system.

The new Marvel Comics ratings: all-ages, teen and mature are a step in the right direction (thank you Joe Quesada), but for the wrong reasons (financial) and will continue to fragment an industry and art form. The Marvel code would offer advisories much like the current TV ratings, but may negate mainstream newsstand distribution and limit Marvel Comics to the comic specialty shops. This is like preaching to the choir; comic books fans already frequent comic book specialty shops- it's the next generations that need to be converted.

Recently, the New York Yankee shortstop Derek Jeter has been pitching the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) rating system as safe way for parents to choose what interactive games best fit within their home.

All the other visual storytelling media have an official industry wide rating system – why not comic books?